Hinduism and Ecology (John Noyce, 9/20/00)

Contributed by John Noyce, from his forthcoming (2001) Religion and Development: A Bibliography, johnnoyce@hotmail.com .

ANAND, A.S., and V.K.ARUNA KUMARA Experimenting with ancient knowledge [agricultural research in Karnataka, based on the Lokopakarum, the first known scientific literature in Kannada] COMPAS Newsletter (ETC, Leusden, Netherlands) Feb 1999; no.1:23 Also available on the Internet: http://www.etcint.org/compas_newsl.htm

ANAND, S. Khandavadaha: a lesson in ecology Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (Pune) 1990;71(1-4):25-59

ARAPURA, J.G., et al Ahimsa and ecology [8 articles] Journal of Dharma 1991;16(3):197-301

ARAPURA, J.G. Ahimsa in basic Hindu scriptures, with reference to cosmo-ethics (ecology) Journal of Dharma 1991;16(3):197-210

BALAPURE, K.N., et al Plants of the Ramayana Ancient Science of Life 1987;v7:76-84

BANERJEE, S.C. Flora and fauna in Sanskrit literature Calcutta: Naya Prakash, 1980

BANWARI Pancavati: Indian approach to environment Delhi: Shri Vinayak Publications, 1992

BAWA, V.K. Environment and development – a Gandhian approach Asian Economic Review 1993;35(1):145-160

BRAHMACHARY, R.L. Traditional knowledge and modern ecology Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society 1995;30(2):103-107

BILIMORIA, P. Environmental ethics of Indian religious traditions [Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain] 1997. Published online at: http://www.emory.edu/COLLEGE/RELIGION/ faculty/bilimoria/paper.htm . Abridged version published as: Indian religious traditions. In: Spirit of the environment: religion, value, and environmental concern. Edited by D.E.Cooper and J.A.Palmer (London: Routledge, 1998):1-14

CHAITANYA, K. Towards a recovery of old perceptions [inc. ecology in the Vedas] India International Centre Quarterly 1982;9(3-4):345-355

CHAITANYA, K. A profounder ecology: the Hindu view of man and nature The Ecologist 1983;v13:127-135

CHANDRASEKHAR, S. The Hindu understanding of population and population control In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1999):189-216

CHAPPLE, C. Contemporary Jaina and Hindu responses to the ecological crisis In: An ecology of the spirit: religious reflection and environmental consciousness. Edited by M.H.Barnes (Lanham, Md: University Press of America/College Theology Society, 1994)

CHAPPLE, C.K. Hindu environmentalism: traditional and contemporary resources The Bucknell Review 1993;37(2):113-123 Also in: Worldviews and ecology: religion, philosophy, and the environment. Edited by M.E.Tucker and J.A.Grim (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1994):113-123

CHAPPLE, C.K. India’s earth consciousness In: The soul of nature: celebrating the spirit of the earth. Edited by M.Tobias and G.Cowan (New York: Plume, 1994):145-151

CHAPPLE, C.K. Towards an indigenous Indian environmentalism In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):13-37

CHAPPLE, C.K., and M.E.TUCKER, eds Hinduism and ecology: the intersection of earth, sky, and water Harvard, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2000

COLYER, B. Hind Swaraj: a green manifesto Gandhi Marg 1995;17(3):320-330

COWARD, H.G. The new master-paradigm: ecology [Hindu and Christian perspectives] Hindu-Christian Studies Bulletin 1993;v6:5-44

COWARD, H. The ecological implications of karma theory In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):39-49

CRAWFORD, C. The ecological conscience of Hinduism Indian Philosophy and Culture 1971;16(2):147-158

CREMO, M.A., and M.GOSWAMI Divine nature: a spiritual perspective on the environmental crisis Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1995

DARIAN, S.G. The Ganges in myth and history Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1978

DAS, S. Forest policy of the Mauryas: an ecological perspective [ancient India] Quarterly Review of Historical Studies 1996;36(3-4):22-35

DAVE, V. The rivers in the Vamana Purana Purana 1970;12:33-47

DE SANTIS, S. Nature and man: the Hindu perspectives Varanasi, 1995. 2v (Distributed by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi)

DEUTSCH, E. Vedanta and ecology Indian Philosophical Annual (Madras) 1970;v7:79-88

DIEHL, C.G. The Goddess of forests in Tamil literature Tamil Culture 1964;11:308-316

DWIVEDI, O.P., and B.N.TIWARI Environmental crisis and Hindu religion New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House, 1987

DWIVEDI, O.P., and B.N.TIWARI Environmental protection in the Hindu religion In: World religions and the environment. Edited by O.P.Dwivedi (New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House, 1989):158-186,339-361

DWIVEDI, O.P. Darshan: nature and the face of God New York: SYDA Foundation, 1990

DWIVEDI, O.P. Satyagraha for conservation: awakening the spirit of Hinduism In: Ethics of environment and development. Edited by J.R.Engel and J.Gibb (Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1990) Also in: This sacred earth: religion, nature, environment. Edited by R.S.Gottlieb (New York: Routledge, 1996):151-164

DWIVEDI, O.P. Global dharma to the environment Indian Journal of Public Administration 1993;39(2):566-576

DWIVEDI, O.P. Human responsibility and the environment: a Hindu perspective Hindu-Christian Studies Bulletin 1993;6:19-26

DWIVEDI, O.P. Environmental protection in the Indian tradition In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation, 1999):161-188

ECK, D.L. Ganga: the Goddess in Hindu sacred geography In: The divine consort: Radha and the goddesses of India. Edited by J.S.Hawley and D.M.Wulff (Boston: Beacon Press, 1982)(Berkeley Religious Studies Series):166-183

FELDHAUS, A. The image of the forest in the Mahatmyas of the rivers of the Deccan In: The history of sacred places in India as reflected in traditional literature. Edited by H.Bakker. Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference, vol.3. (Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1990):90-102

FELDHAUS, A. Types of river goddesses in Maharashtra In: Folk culture, folk religion and oral traditions as components in Maharashtrian culture. Edited by G.-D.Sontheimer (Maharashtra: Culture and Society/ New Delhi: Manohar, 1994):31-47

FELDHAUS, A. Water and womanhood: religious meanings of rivers in Maharashtra New York: Oxford University Press, 1995

GADGIL, M., and V.D.VARTAK The sacred uses of nature In: Social ecology. Edited by R.Guha (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994):82-89 (extracted from Gadgil and Vartak 1976 – see sacred groves section)

GADGIL, M. The Indian heritage of a conservation ethic In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1999):141-160

GHILDIYAL VINEET, and R.C.SHARMA Some Himalayan birds and their conservation in Rigvedic India Himalayan Research and Development 1985;4(2):24-25

GUHA, R. Mahatma Gandhi and the environmental movement Pune: Parisar Annual Lecture, 1993

GUPTA, L. Ganga: purity, pollution, and Hinduism In: Ecofeminism and the sacred. Edited by C.J.Adams (New York: Continuum, 1994):99-116

HARRIS, M. The cultural ecology of India’s sacred cattle Current Anthropology Feb 1966 Reprint: 1992;33(1):261-276

HOPKINS, E.W. Mythological aspects of trees and mountains in the great epic Journal of the American Oriental Society 1910;v30:347-374

HOPKINS, E.W. The sacred rivers of India In: Studies in the history of religions presented to Crawford Howell Toy. Edited by D.G.Lyon and G.F.Moore (New York, 1912):213-229

JAIN, P. 2011 Earth, Water, and Dharmic Ecology: Perspectives from the Swadhyaya Practitioners in Felicitation Volume for Professor T. S. Rukmani, edited by Pratap Penumala and Jonathan Duquette, Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

JAIN, P. 2011 How Can We Cut the Trees of our God?: Sacred Groves of Bhils in Numen: International Review for the History of Religions, 58.1.

JAIN, P. 2010 Jainism and Environmental Ethics in Union Seminary Quarterly Review.

JAIN, P. 2010 Ten Hindu Teachings on the Environment, GreenFaith.org and on Patheos.com

JAIN, P. 2010 Bishnoi: An Eco-Theological New Religious Movement in the Indian Desert in Journal of Vaishnava Studies, 19.1.

JAIN, P. 2009 Dharmic Ecology: Perspectives from the Swadhyaya Practitioners in Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology, 13.3, pp. 305-320.

JAIN, P. 2009 Indic Traditions and Ecology in Religious Studies Review, 35.2, pp. 99-104.

JAIN, P. 2010, The Hindu Method to Save the Planet, Patheos.com: http://www.patheos.com/Resources/Additional-Resources/Hindu-Method-to-Save-the-Planet.html

JAIN, P. 2011, Sustenance and Sustainability: Dharma and ecology of Hindu communities, Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, Vt : Ashgate Pub

JAMES, G., ed Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India New Delhi: APH Publishing, 1999

JAMES, G. The significance of Indian traditions for environmental ethics In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1999):3-30

JANSMA, R. Ecology in a theosophical perspective Theosophist (Madras) 1989;111(2):62-68

JAVADEKAR, A.G. Modern ecology – the relevance of Sankhya Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda) 1976;25(3-4):260-264

JHA, V.N., ed. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Environmental Awareness reflected in Sanskrit Literature Pune: Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Pune, 1991

KAMAT, N.G. Ecology as depicted in the Yogavasistha In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Environmental Awareness reflected in Sanskrit Literature. Edited by V.N.Jha (Pune: Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Pune, 1991):148-153

KAPADIA, B.H. The four-fold division of the heavenly river in the Puranas Purana 1962;4:146-153

KHOSHOO, T.N. Gandhian environmentalism In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1999):241-282

KINSLEY, D. Reflections on ecological themes in Hinduism Journal of Dharma 1991;16(3):229-245

KINSLEY, D. Ecology and religion: ecological spirituality in cross-cultural perspective Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995 Chapter 5: Hinduism: ecological themes

KLOSTERMAIER, K.K. Bhakti, ahimsa and ecology Journal of Dharma 1991;16(3):246-254

KLOSTERMAIER, K.K. Hinduism, population and the environment In: Population, consumption and the environment: religious and secular responses. Edited by H.Coward (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995):137-152

KUMAR, S.V. The Pauranic lore of holy water-places, with special reference to Skanda Purana New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983

KUSUMA BAI, K. Nature and Hindu festivals – an environmental perspective Itihas: journal of the Andhra Pradesh State Archives and Research Institute 1998;24(1-2):1-12

LEWIS, C.A. The Purana texts relating to the rivers of India Purana 1983;25:31-43

McMULLEN, C.O., ed Religion and creation: ecological and developmental concerns in Indian religions Bulletin of the Christian Institute for Religious Studies 1996;v25:3-56

MOSES, S.T. Fish and religion in South India Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 1922;13:549-554 MUMME, P.Y. Models and images for a Vaisnava environmental theology: the potential contribution of Srivaisnavism In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):133-162

NAGARAJAN, V.R. The Earth Goddess as Bhu Devi: toward a theory of ’embedded ecologies’ in folk Hinduism In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):269-296

NARAYANAN, V. “One tree is equal to ten sons”: Hindu responses to the problems of ecology, population, and consumption Journal of the American Academy of religion 1997;65(2):291-332

NELSON, L.E. Reverence for nature or the irrelevance of nature? Advaita Vedanta and ecological concern Journal of Dharma 1991;16(3):281-299

NELSON, L., editor Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998

NELSON, L. The dualism of nondualism: Advaita Vedanta and the irrelevance of nature In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):61-88

NOVAK, P. Tao how? Asian religions and the problem of environmental degradation [in China and India] ReVision 1993;16(2):77-82

OKA, G.B. Viewing economics and ecology from a Hindu perspective In: No more yoke on our neck. Fifty years independence of Indonesie. The year of jubilee: the year of liberation. Edited by J.P.Widyatmadja and J.Damanik (Surakarta: Action Group on Social and Development Policy, Social Welfare Guidance Foundation, 1995)

PANDEY, S. Ganga and Yamuna in Indian art and literature Chandigarh: Indra Prakashan, 1984

PARKHILL, T. The forest setting in Hindu epics Lewiston, NY: Mellen University Press, 1980

PEARSON, A. Aspects of Hindu women’s vrat tradition as constitutive for eco-spirituality Journal of Dharma 1993;18(3):228-236

POKHARIYAL, G.P. The Hindu view of God, humanity and Mother Nature In: God, humanity and mother nature. Edited by G.E.M.Ogutu (Nairobi, Kenya: Masaki Publishers, 1992)

PRASAD, E.A.V. Human ecology through raja-yoga: ancient insights for global development Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures (Madras) 1983:1-22

PRIME, R. Hinduism and ecology: seeds of truth London: Cassell, 1992 Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1994

PUJARI, A. Ecology in the major Upanisads In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Environmental Awareness reflected in Sanskrit Literature. Edited by V.N.Jha (Pune: Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Pune, 1991):17-22

RANDHAWA, M.S. The cult of trees and tree worship in Buddhist and Hindu scripture New Delhi: All-Indian Arts and Crafts Society, 1964

RAY, A. Rabindranath Tagore’s vision of ecological harmony In: Ethical perspectives on environmental issues in India. Edited by G.A.James (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 1999):217-240

RELIGION and the environment in North-East India [papers presented at the seminar on Religion and the Environment, Shillong Chapter of the Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Shillong, November 3-5, 1994] Religion and Society 1995;v42:3-107

RUKMANI, T.S. Environmental ethics as enshrined in Sanskrit sources Nidan (Durban, South Africa) 1995;v7:30-41

SEELAND, K. Sacred world view and ecology in Nepal In: Recent research on Nepal: proceedings of a conference held at the Universitat Konstanz, 27-30 March 1984. Edited by K.Seeland (Munchen: Welftforum Verlag, 1986):187-198

SEN, G., ed Indigenous vision: peoples of India, attitudes to the environment New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1992 Also published as: India International Centre Quarterly 1992;19(1-2) SEN GUPTA, S., ed Rain in Indian life and lore Calcutta: Indian Publications, 1963

SESHACHARI, C. Towards a life-affirming ecology: a Gandhian approach Gandhi Marg 1990;12(3):284-294

SHARMA, A. Attitudes to nature in the early Upanishads In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):51-60

SHARMA, S.S. Contemporaneity on the perception of environment in Kautilya’s Arthasastra Indian Journal of History of Science 1998;33(1):

SHIVA, V. Time is out of joint [sacredness of the soil] Resurgence 1990;no.142:22-27 (extract from her 1989 Schumacher Lecture)

SHULMAN, D. The Green Goddess of Tirumullaivayil East and West 1980;30:117-131

SINGH, R.P.B. Cosmos, Theos, Anthropos: an innver vision of sacred ecology in Hinduism National Geographical Journal of India 1993;39(1-4):113-140

SINGH, R.P.B. Heritage, ecology and caring for the earth: a search for preserving harmony and ethical values National Geographical Journal of India 1995;41(2):191-218

SIRCAR, D.C. Text of the Puranic list of rivers Indian Historical Quarterly 1950;27:215-238

SONTHEIMER, G.-D. Pastoral dieties in Western India New York: Oxford University Press, 1989 (translation of original German edition, 1976)

SULLIVAN, B.M. Paradise polluted: religious dimensions of the Vrindavana ecological movement In: This sacred earth: religion, nature, environment. Edited by R.S.Gottlieb (New York: Routledge, 1996):565-571

SULLIVAN, B.M. Theology and ecology at the birthplace of Krsna In: Purifying the earthly body of God: religion and ecology in Hindu India. Edited by L.Nelson (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998):247-268

SWAMY, C.R.N. A spiritual ecology Theosophist (Madras) 1975;96(6):396-401; 96(7):32-39; 1990;111(10):390-393

TAGORE, G.V. Ecology in ancient India – a note Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda) 1991;40(3-4):215-216

TIWARI, B.N., and O.P.DWIVEDI Hindu culture and ecology South Asian Horizons 1986;4:95-106

TUCKER, M.E., and C.CHAPPLE, eds Hinduism and ecology Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions/ Harvard University Press, forthcoming

VADAKUMCHERRY, J. The earth mother and the indigenous people of India Journal of Dharma 1993;18(1):85-97

VANNUCCI, M. Ecological readings in the Veda: matter-energy-life New Delhi: DK Printworld, 1994

VATSYAYAN, K. Ecology and Indian myth India International Centre Quarterly (New Delhi) 1992;19(1-2):157-180

VENKATAKRISHNA, B.V. Indian mystic approach to the earth Journal of Dharma 1993;18(1):35-41

WEBER, T. Hugging the trees: the story of the Chipko movement Delhi: Viking Press, 1988

WIJESEKERA, O.H. de A. Rgvedic river-goddesses and an Indus Valley seal In: Dr.C.Kunhan Raja presentation volume: a volume of Indological studies. Edited by G.S.Murti and others (Madras: The Adyar Library, 1946

WILLIAMS, J. The churning of the ocean of milk – myth, image and ecology India International Centre Quarterly (New Delhi) 1992;19(1-2):145-155

YASODA DEVI, V. Ganga and Yamuna Sri Venkatesvara University Oriental Journal 1961; 4(1-2):44-54

ZIMMERMAN, F. La Jungle et le fumet des viandes: un theme ecologique dans la medecine hindoue Paris, Gallimard, 1982

5.2.1 Sacred Groves

AMIRTHALINGAM, M., ed The ecological tradition of Tamilnadu [sacred groves, sacred trees and (water) tanks in villages] Chennai (Madras): C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre, 1996?

AMIRTHALINGAM, M. The sacred groves of Tamil Nadu – a survey Chennai (Madras): C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre, 1997?

AMIRTHALINGAM, M. The sacred trees of Tamilnadu Chennai (Madras): C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre, 1998

APFFEL-MARGLIN, F. Sacred groves: regenerating the body, the land, the community In: Global ecology: a new arena of political conflict. Edited by W.Sachs (London: Zed Press, 1993):197-207

APFFEL-MARGLIN, F. The sacred groves: menstruation rituals in rural Orissa Manushi (Delhi) 1994;no.82:22-32

APFFEL-MARGLIN, F. The sacred groves [different perspectives in East and West regarding menstruation, with esp ref to Orissa] Quilt (Philippines) 1994;no.2:56+

APFFEL-MARGLIN, F., and P.PARAJULI Sacred groves and ecology: ritual and science Paper presented at the Hinduism and Ecology Conference, October 2-5, 1997, Harvard University. Abstract: http://divweb.harvard.edu/cswr/ecology/apffel.htm

BOOJH, R., and RAMAKRISHNAN, P.S. Sacred groves and their role in environmental conservation In: Strategies for environmental management [souvenir volume](Lucknow: Department of Science and Environment, Government of Uttar Pradesh, 1983):6-8

CHANDRAN, M.D.S., and J.D.HUGHES The sacred groves of South India: ecology, traditional communities and religious change [Uttara Kannada, Karnataka State] Social Compass 1997;44(3):413-427

CHANDRASHEKARA, U.M., and S.SANKAR Forest ecology and management of sacred groves in Kerala, India Forest Ecology and Management 1998;112(1-2):165-178

FRIENDS OF VRINDAVAN Protecting sacred forests: linking Leicester’s community with the sacred forests of India Leicester, UK?: Friends of Vrindavan, 1993

GADGIL, M., and V.D.VARTAK Sacred groves of India: a plea for continued conservation Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 1975;v72:314-320

GADGIL, M., and V.D.VARTAK Sacred groves of Western Ghats of India Economic Botany 1976;30(2):152-160

GADGIL, M., and V.D.VARTAK Sacred groves of Maharashtra: an inventory In: Glimpses of Indian ethnobotany. Edited by S.K.Jain (Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1981):279-294

GADGIL, M., and M.D.S.CHANDRAN Sacred groves In: Indigenous vision: peoples of India, attitudes to the environment. Edited by G.Sen (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1992): 184-187 Also in: India International Centre Quarterly 1992;19(1-2):184-187

GODBOLE, A. India: fruits of the grove [sacred groves in Maharashtra][interview] UNESCO Sources Nov 1998;no.106:15

KALAM, M.A. Sacred groves in Kodagu District of Karnataka (South India) Review: South Asia 1997;20(1):137-139

KHIEWTAM, R.S., and P.S.RAMKRISHNAN Socio-cultural studies of the sacred groves at Cherrapunji and adjoining areas in north-eastern India Man in India 1989;69(1):64-71

KOSAMBI, D.D. Myth and reality [sacred groves in Maharashtra] Bombay: Popular Press, 1962

KUMBHOJAR, M.S., and D.I.KULKARNI Environmental impact of sacred groves in Western Ghats of Maharashtra Science and Culture 1998;64(9-10):205-207

MAHAPATRA, S. Unending rythms: oral poetry of the Indian tribes New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 1992 Chapter 3: The sacred grove and the Bongas: the poetry of the Santals

MOHANAN, L., and P.K.MURALEEDHARAN Rattan resources in the sacred groves of Kerala, India Rattan Information Center Bulletin 1998;v7:4-5

NAIR, N.C., and C.N.MOHANAN On the rediscovery of four threatened species from sacred groves of Kerala Journal of Economic Taxonomy and Botany 1981;v2:233-234

NAIR, G.H., et al Sacred groves of India – vanishing greenery Current Science 1997;72(10):697-698

RODGERS, W.A. The sacred groves of Meghalaya Man in India 1994;74(4):339-348

ROY BURMAN, J.J. Sacred groves among the Mahadeo Kolis Vanyajati 1991;39(1):28-37

ROY BURMAN, J.J. Sacred groves and the modern political economy Lokayan Bulletin Mar-Apr 1994;no.98:41-52

SEN GUPTA, S. Idea of toleration and co-existence: a study of sacred trees in India Folklore (Calcutta) 1980;21(4):85-92

SINGH, G.S. Sacred groves in Western Himalaya – an eco-cultural imperative Man in India 1997;77(2-3):247-257

SINGH, G.S. Socio-cultural evaluation of sacred groves for biodiversity conservation at Kulla District in North Western Himalaya Man and Life 1997;23(3-4):201-208

SINHA, B.C. Tree worship in ancient India New Delhi: Books Today, 1979

SINHA, R.K. Biodiversity conservation through faith and tradition in India – some case studies [sacred groves] International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 1995;2(4):278-284

THAMIZOLI, P. The sacred grove of Kannimar the Irula deity: and in situ conservation of biodiversity South Asian Anthropologist 1997;18(2):71-74

TIWARI, B.K., et al Biodiversity value, status, and strategies for conservation of sacred groves of Meghalaya, India Ecosystem Health 1998;4(1):20-32 VANNUCCI, M. Sacred groves of holy forests In: Concepts of space: ancient and modern. Edited by K.Vatsyayan (New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1991):323-331

VARTAK, V.D., and M.GADGIL Studies on sacred groves along the Western Ghats from Maharashtra and Goa: role of beliefs and folklores [about sacred groves near Mangaon village, hills of Poona district, Maharashtra] In: Glimpses of Indian ethnobotany. Edited by S.K.Jain (Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1981):272-278 Also in: Contributions to Indian ethnobotany. Edited by Jain SK (Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers, 1997. 3rd ed):313-318

WACHTEL, P.S. Asia’s sacred groves [India and China] International Wildlife Mar-Apr 1993;23(2):24-27