Purusartha (Shyam Ranganathan, Fall 2004)

Compiled by Shyam Ranganathan

Davis, Donald R. Jr. (forthcoming). “Being Hindu or Being Human: A Reappraisal of the Purusarthas”. International Journal of Hindu Studies.

[Contains several discussions of the Purusarthas in both Buddhist and Jain literature—in addition to classic Hindu references]

Halbfass, Wilhelm (1994). Menschsein und Lebensziele: Beobachtungen zu den purusarthas. Hermeneutics of Encounter: Essays in Honour of Gerhard Oberhammer on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. F. X. D’Sa and R. Mesquita (eds.). Vienna, De Nobili Research Library. 123-135.

Kautilya Arthashastra.

See 1.7.4; 1.10.16; 8.3.4 , 37; 9.7.60, 62, 64

Koller, John M. (1968). Purusarthas as Human Aims. Philosophy East & West 18 (4): 315-319.

Krishna, Daya (1986). The Myth of the Purusarthas. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 4(1): 1-14.

Mahabharatha.

References to the set of “dharma,” “artha,” “kama” and “moksa” but not to “purusartha”: see Book 12, especially 12.161.

See also:

1.68.40 (trivarga); 109.19, 23; 171.3 (goals);

3. 78.11; 119.21 (goals); 76.27; 206.22

5. 121.22 (goals) ; 122.32 (twice: both goals), 36 (goals) 133.29;

6. 10.59 , 69,

9. 4.28;

11. 2.19;

12. 12.17; 15.3; 28.42; 56.4; 57.17; 59.30, 31 (twice), 38, 76; 69.64

(twice), 67 (twice) ; 118.10; 121.13; 123.5, 8; 136.20; 137.95;

138.57; 161.3, 38, 46; 183.9; 184.10, 17; 185.3; 187.55; 215.15

(twice), 19; 276.15; 308.88, 129 (twice); 316.47;

13. 32.20, 21; 118.24; 128.56; 129.15; 131.40;

14. 37.14; 78.6

Malamoud, Charle (1982). On the Rhetoric and Semantics of Purusartha. Way of Life: King, Householder, Renouncer. T. N. Madan (ed.). New Delhi, Vikas.

Manu, Visnu, et al. Discussions of “trivarga” in the dharmashastras. “Trivarga” (which could be any of the three) is discussed at Manu 2.224 and 7.27, Visnu Dharmashastra 39.20 (29) and Yajnavalkya Dharmashastra 1.74.

Prasad, Rajendra (1981). The Theory of Purusarthas: Revaluation and Reconstruction. Journal of Indian Philosophy 9(1): 49-76.

Ramayana.

See 1.6.5; 4.37.22; 4.40.45; 63.11; 5. 11.20; 6. 103.6

Sharma, Arvind (1982). The Purusarthas: A Study in Hindu Axiology. East Lansing, Asian Studies Center, Michigan State Univ.

Sharma, Arvind (1999). The Purusarthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism. Journal of Religious Ethics 27(2): 223-256.

Vatsyayana. Kamasutra.

See 1.1.2, 5, 16; 1.2; 1.2.1, 15, 41; 6.6.5, 6, 12.